Urban Water Journal, Volume 6, Issue 4, 2009
Norway has frequently encountered flood damage in urban areas during recent years. In this paper the authors, taking Veumdalen catchment in Fredrikstad as an example, simulated the possible
consequences in the sewer system, in the present, predicted and artificial climate scenarios. Indicators that describe (1) surface flooding, (2) surcharging sewers, (3) basement flooding and (4) combined sewer overflow (CSO) are defined to represent the adverse effects of climate change. It is concluded from the annual-based simulation that the total volume of water spilling from the flooding manholes will increase 2–4-times the increase in precipitation, and the total CSO will increase 1.5–3-times as much as the increase in precipitation. The simulation results also show that the number of flooding manholes and number of surcharging sewers may change dramatically and irregularly with a slight change of precipitation, and vary with events and durations.
View the full paper: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15730620802600924